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خرید ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware دانلود PDF کتاب نسخه دوم سال 2016

Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition

ISBN Number: 978-1-56051-665-1
Item Format: Download
Item Pages: 277
Download: MASH Implementation Agreement (0.3 MB)
Download: Table of Contents and Introduction (1.0 MB)
Year Published: 2016
Price: $10.00

URL =bookstore.transportation.org

فهرست مطالب ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware

خرید استاندارد AASHTO ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware برای دانلود PDF کتاب Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware نسخه دوم سال 2016 با ما مکاتبه کنید. دانلود ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware خرید استاندارد AASHTO ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware برای دانلود PDF کتاب نسخه دوم سال 2016 Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition دانلود PDF کتاب Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition ISBN Number: 978-1-56051-665-1 Item Format: Download Item Pages: 277 Download: MASH Implementation Agreement (0.3 MB) Download: Table of Contents and Introduction (1.0 MB) Year Published: 2016 Price: $10.00 URL =bookstore.transportation.org فهرست مطالب ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1—Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................1 1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE ...............................................................................................................................................1 1.2 UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY....................................................................................................................................2 1.3 PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS................................................................................................................................3 1.4 SAFETY FEATURES....................................................................................................................................................4 1.5 TEST LEVELS ..............................................................................................................................................................5 1.6 INTERNATIONAL HARMONIZATION .....................................................................................................................6 1.7 ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL TOOLS ........................................................................................................6 1.8 ORGANIZATION OF MANUAL.................................................................................................................................7 Chapter 2—Test Matrices and Conditions .............................................................................................................................9 2.1 GENERAL.....................................................................................................................................................................9 2.1.1 Impact Conditions ................................................................................................................................................9 2.1.2 Tolerances on Impact Conditions ......................................................................................................................11 2.1.3 Safety Feature Orientation..................................................................................................................................13 2.2 TEST MATRICES .......................................................................................................................................................13 2.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers..........................................................................................................................................13 2.2.1.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................13 2.2.1.2 Description of Tests...................................................................................................................................15 2.2.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions ...........................................................................................................................25 2.2.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................25 2.2.2.2 Description of Tests...................................................................................................................................33 2.2.2.3 Other Terminals and Crash Cushion Systems...........................................................................................35 2.2.3 Truck- and Trailer-Mounted Attenuators and Variable Message Sign and Arrow Board Trailers......................36 2.2.3.1 General ......................................................................................................................................................36 2.2.3.2 Description of Tests...................................................................................................................................39 2.2.4 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, Breakaway Utility Poles, and Longitudinal Channelizers..................................................................................................................................39 2.2.4.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................39 2.2.4.2 Description of Tests...................................................................................................................................43 2.2.5 Roadside Geometric Features and Pavement Discontinuities...........................................................................44 2.3 IMPACT POINT FOR REDIRECTIVE DEVICES ...................................................................................................46 2.3.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................................46 2.3.2 Longitudinal Barriers .........................................................................................................................................46 2.3.2.1 Tests with 1100C and 2270P Vehicles ......................................................................................................48 2.3.2.2 Tests with 10000S, 36000V, and 36000T Vehicles ...................................................................................63 2.3.3 Terminals and Redirective Crash Cushions........................................................................................................63 2.3.3.1 Test 34 .......................................................................................................................................................63 2.3.3.2 Test 36 ......................................................................................................................................................64 2.3.3.3 Test 37 .......................................................................................................................................................64 2.3.3.4 Test 44 .......................................................................................................................................................65 2.4 SIDE IMPACT.............................................................................................................................................................65 Chapter 3—Test Installation .................................................................................................................................................67 3.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................................67 3.2 TESTING SITE............................................................................................................................................................67 3.3 SOIL.............................................................................................................................................................................68 3.3.1 Standard Soil ......................................................................................................................................................68 3.3.2 Soil Strength .......................................................................................................................................................68 3.3.3 Special Soils .......................................................................................................................................................72 3.3.4 Embedment of Test Article .................................................................................................................................72 3.3.5 Special Structures ...............................................................................................................................................73 3.4 TEST ARTICLE...........................................................................................................................................................73 3.4.1 General ...............................................................................................................................................................73 3.4.2 Installation Details..............................................................................................................................................74 © 2016 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law. Provided by IHS Licensee=/, User=, No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, Free Download PDF Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition 3.4.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers ................................................................................................................................74 3.4.2.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions..................................................................................................................76 3.4.2.3 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, and Breakaway Utility Poles ..........................76 3.4.2.4 Truck-Mounted and Trailer-Mounted Attenuators (TMAs)......................................................................77 3.4.3 Test Installation Documentation.........................................................................................................................78 3.4.3.1 Longitudinal Barriers and Longitudinal Channelizers..............................................................................78 3.4.3.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions..................................................................................................................78 3.4.3.3 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, and Breakaway Utility Poles ..........................79 3.4.3.4 Truck-Mounted and Trailer-Mounted Attenuators (TMAs)......................................................................79 3.4.4 Test Installation Disposal....................................................................................................................................80 Chapter 4—Test Vehicle Specifcations...............................................................................................................................81 4.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................................................................................81 4.2 TEST VEHICLE DESCRIPTIONS.............................................................................................................................81 4.2.1 Production Vehicles ............................................................................................................................................83 4.2.1.1 Test Vehicle Mass......................................................................................................................................86 4.2.1.2 Ballast .......................................................................................................................................................87 4.2.1.3 Propulsion, Guidance, and Braking ..........................................................................................................88 4.2.1.4 Vehicle Damage ........................................................................................................................................88 4.2.1.5 Surrogate Occupants .................................................................................................................................89 4.2.1.6 Documentation ..........................................................................................................................................89 4.2.2 Surrogate Test Vehicles.......................................................................................................................................96 4.2.3 Truck-Mounted and Trailer-Mounted Attenuator (TMA) Support Vehicle........................................................97 4.3 VEHICLE INSTRUMENTATION ..............................................................................................................................97 4.3.1 Instrumentation Specifcations ...........................................................................................................................97 4.3.2 Accelerometer and Rate Gyro Placement and Data Reduction ..........................................................................99 Chapter 5—Test Evaluation Criteria...................................................................................................................................101 5.1 GENERAL.................................................................................................................................................................101 5.2 EVALUATION FACTORS AND CRITERIA...........................................................................................................101 5.2.1 Structural Adequacy .........................................................................................................................................104 5.2.2 Occupant Risk ..................................................................................................................................................105 5.2.3 Post-Impact Vehicular Response ......................................................................................................................108 5.3 GEOMETRIC FEATURES .......................................................................................................................................110 Chapter 6—Test Documentation........................................................................................................................................111 6.1 GENERAL REPORTING RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................................111 6.1.1 General Information .........................................................................................................................................111 6.1.2 Report Contents................................................................................................................................................111 6.1.3 Findings Presentation Formats .........................................................................................................................115 6.1.4 Assessment .......................................................................................................................................................117 Chapter 7—In-Service Performance Evaluation ..............................................................................................................122 7.1 PURPOSE..................................................................................................................................................................122 7.2 OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................................................123 7.3 IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROGRAM ................................................................................123 7.3.1 New Feature Evaluation ...................................................................................................................................123 7.3.2 Continuous Monitoring ....................................................................................................................................126 7.4 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................................................................128 Appendix A—Commentary..................................................................................................................................................129 CHAPTER ONE ..............................................................................................................................................................129 A1.2 UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY.............................................................................................................................129 CHAPTER TWO .............................................................................................................................................................130 A2.1 GENERAL..............................................................................................................................................................130 A2.1.1 Impact Conditions..........................................................................................................................................131 A2.1.3 Safety Feature Orientation.............................................................................................................................132 A2.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers.....................................................................................................................................133 A2.2.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions .....................................................................................................................133 © 2016 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law. Provided by IHS Licensee=/, User=, No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, Free Download Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition x | Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware A2.2.3 Truck-Mounted Attenuators (TMA) ..............................................................................................................134 A2.2.4 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, Breakaway Utility Poles, and Longitudinal Channelizers.............................................................................................................................135 A2.3 IMPACT POINT FOR REDIRECTIVE DEVICES ...............................................................................................137 A2.3.2.1 Tests with 1100C and 2270P Vehicles..................................................................................................138 A2.3.2.2 Tests with 10000S, 36000V, and 36000T Vehicles ..............................................................................141 CHAPTER THREE..........................................................................................................................................................142 A3.2 TESTING SITE.......................................................................................................................................................142 A3.3 SOIL........................................................................................................................................................................142 A3.3.1 Standard Soil .................................................................................................................................................143 A3.3.2 Soil Strength ..................................................................................................................................................143 A3.3.3 Special Soils ..................................................................................................................................................144 A3.3.4 Embedment of Test Article ............................................................................................................................144 A3.4 TEST ARTICLE......................................................................................................................................................144 A3.4.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers ...........................................................................................................................144 A3.4.2.4 Truck-Mounted Attenuators (TMA).....................................................................................................145 CHAPTER FOUR............................................................................................................................................................145 A4.2 TEST VEHICLE DESCRIPTIONS........................................................................................................................145 A4.2.1 Production Vehicles .......................................................................................................................................146 A4.2.1.1 Test Vehicle Mass.................................................................................................................................147 A4.2.1.2 Ballast...................................................................................................................................................148 A4.2.1.4 Vehicle Damage....................................................................................................................................148 A4.2.1.5 Surrogate Occupants ............................................................................................................................149 A4.2.2 Surrogate Test Vehicles..................................................................................................................................149 A4.2.3 TMA Support Truck.......................................................................................................................................151 A4.3.1 Instrumentation Specifcations ......................................................................................................................152 A4.3.2 Acceleration and Rate Gyro Placement and Data Reduction ........................................................................152 CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................................................................156 A5.1 GENERAL..............................................................................................................................................................156 A5.2 EVALUATION FACTORS AND CRITERIA ........................................................................................................156 A5.2.1 Structural Adequacy ......................................................................................................................................156 A5.2.2 Occupant Risk................................................................................................................................................157 A5.2.3 Post-Impact Vehicular Response ...................................................................................................................162 A5.3 GEOMETRIC FEATURES.....................................................................................................................................163 CHAPTER SIX................................................................................................................................................................164 A6.1 GENERAL REPORTING RECOMMENDATIONS..............................................................................................164 CHAPTER SEVEN .........................................................................................................................................................164 A7.1 PURPOSE ...............................................................................................................................................................164 Appendix B—Soil Strength Performance Test .................................................................................................................166 B1 Purpose.......................................................................................................................................................................166 B2 Application .................................................................................................................................................................166 B3 Instrumented Post.......................................................................................................................................................166 B4 Post Placement ...........................................................................................................................................................169 B5 Dynamic Test..............................................................................................................................................................169 B6 Assurance of Soil Performance ..................................................................................................................................171 Appendix C—Electronic & Photographic Instrumentation Specifcations ................................................................... 174 Appendix D—Analytical and Experimental Tools.............................................................................................................212 D1 Useful Techniques......................................................................................................................................................212 D1.1 Structural Design ..............................................................................................................................................212 D1.2 Static Tests ........................................................................................................................................................212 D1.3 Computer Simulations ......................................................................................................................................214 D1.4 Laboratory Dynamic Tests ...............................................................................................................................216 D1.5 Gravitational Pendulum....................................................................................................................................216 D1.6 Drop Mass/Dynamic Test Device.....................................................................................................................217 D1.7 Scale Model .....................................................................................................................................................217 D1.8 Bogie Test ........................................................................................................................................................217 © 2016 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law. Provided by IHS Licensee=/, User=, No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, Download Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition D2 Comparison of Techniques ........................................................................................................................................218 Appendix E—Measurement of Vehicle Deformation ......................................................................................................220 E1 Pre-Impact Measurements..........................................................................................................................................220 E2 Post-Impact Measurements ........................................................................................................................................222 E3 Photographic Documentation .....................................................................................................................................222 E4 Procedure for Measuring Exterior Crush ...................................................................................................................224 Appendix F—Determination of THIV, PHD, and ASI ........................................................................................................228 F1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................228 F2 A Guide to the Measurement of the Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV) and the Post-Impact Head Deceleration (PHD) ................................................................................................................228 F2.1 General .............................................................................................................................................................228 F2.2 Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV) .......................................................................................................228 F2.3 Post-Impact Head Deceleration (PHD) ............................................................................................................232 F2.4 Summary of Procedure to Compute THIV and PHD .......................................................................................232 F3 A Guide to the Measurement of the Acceleration Severity Index (ASI) ...................................................................234 F3.1 Procedure ..........................................................................................................................................................234 F3.2 Summary ...........................................................................................................................................................235 Appendix G—Occupant Risk Estimation for 1500A Vehicle..........................................................................................237 G1. Introduction...............................................................................................................................................................237 G2. Occupant Risk Values for 1500A Vehicle .................................................................................................................238 G2.1 Procedure Details .............................................................................................................................................238 Appendix H—Test Vehicle Selection Procedures.............................................................................................................242 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................................249 References and Bibliography.............................................................................................................................................254 دانلود رایگان کتابچه استاندارد Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware چند صفحه از استاندارد Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware در ادامه بصورت رایگان قرار داده شده است، تا از کیفیت فایل PDF اطمینان پیدا کنید. خرید استاندارد AASHTO ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware برای دانلود PDF کتاب نسخه دوم سال 2016 Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition خرید استاندارد AASHTO ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware برای دانلود PDF کتاب نسخه دوم سال 2016 خرید استاندارد AASHTO ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware برای دانلود PDF کتاب نسخه دوم سال 2016 Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition خرید ایبوک Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware برای دانلود PDF کتاب نسخه دوم سال 2016 Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second EditionTABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1—Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
1.3 PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
1.4 SAFETY FEATURES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
1.5 TEST LEVELS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.6 INTERNATIONAL HARMONIZATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.7 ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL TOOLS …………………………………………………………………………………………..6
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF MANUAL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Chapter 2—Test Matrices and Conditions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9
2.1 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.1.1 Impact Conditions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.1.2 Tolerances on Impact Conditions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
2.1.3 Safety Feature Orientation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
2.2 TEST MATRICES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….13
2.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
2.2.1.1 General ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
2.2.1.2 Description of Tests…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15
2.2.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………25
2.2.2.1 General ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………25
2.2.2.2 Description of Tests…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
2.2.2.3 Other Terminals and Crash Cushion Systems……………………………………………………………………………….35
2.2.3 Truck- and Trailer-Mounted Attenuators and Variable Message Sign and Arrow Board Trailers………………….36
2.2.3.1 General ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
2.2.3.2 Description of Tests…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
2.2.4 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, Breakaway Utility Poles, and
Longitudinal Channelizers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39
2.2.4.1 General …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39
2.2.4.2 Description of Tests…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
2.2.5 Roadside Geometric Features and Pavement Discontinuities…………………………………………………………………44
2.3 IMPACT POINT FOR REDIRECTIVE DEVICES ………………………………………………………………………………………46
2.3.1 General ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………46
2.3.2 Longitudinal Barriers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..46
2.3.2.1 Tests with 1100C and 2270P Vehicles …………………………………………………………………………………………48
2.3.2.2 Tests with 10000S, 36000V, and 36000T Vehicles ………………………………………………………………………..63
2.3.3 Terminals and Redirective Crash Cushions…………………………………………………………………………………………..63
2.3.3.1 Test 34 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….63
2.3.3.2 Test 36 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………64
2.3.3.3 Test 37 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….64
2.3.3.4 Test 44 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
2.4 SIDE IMPACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….65
Chapter 3—Test Installation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….67
3.1 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….67
3.2 TESTING SITE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………67
3.3 SOIL………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..68
3.3.1 Standard Soil ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………68
3.3.2 Soil Strength …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….68
3.3.3 Special Soils …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….72
3.3.4 Embedment of Test Article …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………72
3.3.5 Special Structures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..73
3.4 TEST ARTICLE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..73
3.4.1 General ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………73
3.4.2 Installation Details…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….74
© 2016 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Provided by IHS Licensee=/, User=,
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale,

Free Download PDF  Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition

3.4.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..74
3.4.2.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions……………………………………………………………………………………………………76
3.4.2.3 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, and Breakaway Utility Poles ……………………..76
3.4.2.4 Truck-Mounted and Trailer-Mounted Attenuators (TMAs)…………………………………………………………….77
3.4.3 Test Installation Documentation………………………………………………………………………………………………………….78
3.4.3.1 Longitudinal Barriers and Longitudinal Channelizers……………………………………………………………………78
3.4.3.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions……………………………………………………………………………………………………78
3.4.3.3 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, and Breakaway Utility Poles ……………………..79
3.4.3.4 Truck-Mounted and Trailer-Mounted Attenuators (TMAs)…………………………………………………………….79
3.4.4 Test Installation Disposal……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………80
Chapter 4—Test Vehicle Specifcations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….81
4.1 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….81
4.2 TEST VEHICLE DESCRIPTIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..81
4.2.1 Production Vehicles …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..83
4.2.1.1 Test Vehicle Mass……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..86
4.2.1.2 Ballast …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….87
4.2.1.3 Propulsion, Guidance, and Braking …………………………………………………………………………………………….88
4.2.1.4 Vehicle Damage ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….88
4.2.1.5 Surrogate Occupants …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………89
4.2.1.6 Documentation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………89
4.2.2 Surrogate Test Vehicles………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………96
4.2.3 Truck-Mounted and Trailer-Mounted Attenuator (TMA) Support Vehicle………………………………………………..97
4.3 VEHICLE INSTRUMENTATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………97
4.3.1 Instrumentation Specifcations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………97
4.3.2 Accelerometer and Rate Gyro Placement and Data Reduction ………………………………………………………………..99
Chapter 5—Test Evaluation Criteria…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..101
5.1 GENERAL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..101
5.2 EVALUATION FACTORS AND CRITERIA……………………………………………………………………………………………..101
5.2.1 Structural Adequacy ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..104
5.2.2 Occupant Risk ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..105
5.2.3 Post-Impact Vehicular Response ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….108
5.3 GEOMETRIC FEATURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………110
Chapter 6—Test Documentation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….111
6.1 GENERAL REPORTING RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………….111
6.1.1 General Information ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..111
6.1.2 Report Contents………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………111
6.1.3 Findings Presentation Formats ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….115
6.1.4 Assessment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….117
Chapter 7—In-Service Performance Evaluation ………………………………………………………………………………………………..122
7.1 PURPOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………122
7.2 OBJECTIVES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………123
7.3 IN-SERVICE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROGRAM ……………………………………………………………………..123
7.3.1 New Feature Evaluation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..123
7.3.2 Continuous Monitoring ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………126
7.4 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………128
Appendix A—Commentary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
A1.2 UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..129
CHAPTER TWO ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….130
A2.1 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..130
A2.1.1 Impact Conditions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………131
A2.1.3 Safety Feature Orientation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..132
A2.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….133
A2.2.2 Terminals and Crash Cushions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………133
© 2016 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law.
Provided by IHS Licensee=/, User=,
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale,

Free Download Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, Second Edition

x | Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware
A2.2.3 Truck-Mounted Attenuators (TMA) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..134
A2.2.4 Support Structures, Work-Zone Trafc Control Devices, Breakaway Utility Poles, and
Longitudinal Channelizers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..135
A2.3 IMPACT POINT FOR REDIRECTIVE DEVICES …………………………………………………………………………………..137
A2.3.2.1 Tests with 1100C and 2270P Vehicles……………………………………………………………………………………..138
A2.3.2.2 Tests with 10000S, 36000V, and 36000T Vehicles ……………………………………………………………………141
CHAPTER THREE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….142
A3.2 TESTING SITE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….142
A3.3 SOIL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………142
A3.3.1 Standard Soil ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….143
A3.3.2 Soil Strength ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..143
A3.3.3 Special Soils ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..144
A3.3.4 Embedment of Test Article …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….144
A3.4 TEST ARTICLE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………144
A3.4.2.1 Longitudinal Barriers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………144
A3.4.2.4 Truck-Mounted Attenuators (TMA)………………………………………………………………………………………..145
CHAPTER FOUR…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………145
A4.2 TEST VEHICLE DESCRIPTIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………145
A4.2.1 Production Vehicles ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………146
A4.2.1.1 Test Vehicle Mass…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………147
A4.2.1.2 Ballast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………148
A4.2.1.4 Vehicle Damage……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………148
A4.2.1.5 Surrogate Occupants …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….149
A4.2.2 Surrogate Test Vehicles………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….149
A4.2.3 TMA Support Truck………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………151
A4.3.1 Instrumentation Specifcations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….152
A4.3.2 Acceleration and Rate Gyro Placement and Data Reduction ………………………………………………………………152
CHAPTER FIVE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………156
A5.1 GENERAL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..156
A5.2 EVALUATION FACTORS AND CRITERIA …………………………………………………………………………………………..156
A5.2.1 Structural Adequacy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..156
A5.2.2 Occupant Risk………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………157
A5.2.3 Post-Impact Vehicular Response …………………………………………………………………………………………………….162
A5.3 GEOMETRIC FEATURES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….163
CHAPTER SIX…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….164
A6.1 GENERAL REPORTING RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….164
CHAPTER SEVEN ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………164
A7.1 PURPOSE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………164
Appendix B—Soil Strength Performance Test …………………………………………………………………………………………………..166
B1 Purpose…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..166
B2 Application ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..166
B3 Instrumented Post…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….166
B4 Post Placement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..169
B5 Dynamic Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..169
B6 Assurance of Soil Performance ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….171
Appendix C—Electronic & Photographic Instrumentation Specifcations …………………………………………………………. 174
Appendix D—Analytical and Experimental Tools……………………………………………………………………………………………….212
D1 Useful Techniques……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………212
D1.1 Structural Design …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….212
D1.2 Static Tests ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..212
D1.3 Computer Simulations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..214
D1.4 Laboratory Dynamic Tests ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….216
D1.5 Gravitational Pendulum……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………216
D1.6 Drop Mass/Dynamic Test Device………………………………………………………………………………………………………217
D1.7 Scale Model …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..217
D1.8 Bogie Test ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..217
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D2 Comparison of Techniques ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….218
Appendix E—Measurement of Vehicle Deformation …………………………………………………………………………………………220
E1 Pre-Impact Measurements…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………220
E2 Post-Impact Measurements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….222
E3 Photographic Documentation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….222
E4 Procedure for Measuring Exterior Crush …………………………………………………………………………………………………….224
Appendix F—Determination of THIV, PHD, and ASI …………………………………………………………………………………………..228
F1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….228
F2 A Guide to the Measurement of the Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV) and
the Post-Impact Head Deceleration (PHD) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….228
F2.1 General ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….228
F2.2 Theoretical Head Impact Velocity (THIV) ………………………………………………………………………………………….228
F2.3 Post-Impact Head Deceleration (PHD) ………………………………………………………………………………………………232
F2.4 Summary of Procedure to Compute THIV and PHD ……………………………………………………………………………232
F3 A Guide to the Measurement of the Acceleration Severity Index (ASI) ………………………………………………………….234
F3.1 Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….234
F3.2 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..235
Appendix G—Occupant Risk Estimation for 1500A Vehicle………………………………………………………………………………237
G1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………237
G2. Occupant Risk Values for 1500A Vehicle …………………………………………………………………………………………………..238
G2.1 Procedure Details ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………238
Appendix H—Test Vehicle Selection Procedures……………………………………………………………………………………………….242
Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..249
References and Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………254

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