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دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1

دانلود ایبوک تصـفیه فاضـلاب و اسـتفاده مجدد آن سال 2018 دکتر قسیم

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دانلود ایبوک Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment

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دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment Syed R. Qasim Download Ebook 9781351402026

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1
Principles and Basic Treatment

By Syed R. Qasim, Guang Zhu
Download Ebook
Edition 1st Edition
First Published 5 December 2017
eBook Published 22 November 2017
Pub. location Boca Raton
Imprint CRC Press
Pages 1159 pages
eBook ISBN=9781351402026
Subjects= Engineering & Technology, Environment and Sustainability

Price=45$

کتاب تصـفیه فاضـلاب و اسـتفاده مجدد آن : تئـوری و مثال های طراحی سال 2018  دکتر قسیم

جدیدترین کتاب رفرنس تخصصی آب و فاضلاب منتشر شده توسط دکتر قسیم ( دانشگاه آرلینگتون تگزاس ) با عنوان تصـفیه فاضـلاب و اسـتفاده مجدد آن : تئـوری و مثال های طراحی به صورت ایبوک اماده ارسال است. به محض واریز هزینه فایل PDF خدمتتتان ارسال می شود.

درباره نویسنده Dr. Syed R. Qasim

کتاب تصـفیه فاضـلاب و اسـتفاده مجدد آن : تئـوری و مثال های طراحی سال 2018 دکتر قسیم
دکترسیدر قسیم نویسنده کتاب تصـفیه فاضـلاب و اسـتفاده مجدد آن : تئـوری و مثال های طراحی سال 2018

 Dr. Syed R. Qasim is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington. Dr Qasim received his Ph.D and MSCE degrees from West Virginia University, and BSCE degree from India. He served on the faculty of Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY; and on the faculty of the University of Texas at Arlington, TX from 1973 till his retirement in 2007. Dr. Qasim has conducted full time research with Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories; and has worked as a design engineer with a consulting engineering firm in Columbus, Ohio.

دکتر سیدر قسیم

He has over 47 years of experience as an educator, researcher, and practitioner in the related fields of environmental engineering. His principal research and teaching interests include water and wastewater treatment processes and plant design, industrial waste treatment, and solid and hazardous waste management. He served nationally and internationally as a consultant with governmental agencies and private concerns. Dr. Qasim has written three books, and is author or coauthor of over 150 technical papers, encyclopedia and book chapters, and research reports.

دکتر قسیم

His papers, seminars, and short courses have been presented nationally and internationally. He is a life member of American Society of Civil Engineers and Water Environment Federation; a member of Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors , American Water Works Association, and other professional and honor societies. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Texas.

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دانلود کلیه فصول کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1

 

Chapter 1 | 12 pages

Introduction to Wastewater Treatment: An Overview

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As societies moved from nomadic cultures to building more permanent settlements, the waste disposal became an important concern. Odors, nuisance, and health risks primarily from infectious diseases became apparent. The advent of the water carriage system was the major development toward removal of human waste from the residential areas. Now the human waste could be diluted with large quantities of water, carried through underground pipes to a centralized location outside the population centers and disposed of in a large and suitable water body.

Chapter 2 | 36 pages
Stoichiometry and Reaction Kinetics

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In an accident, 500 lb of hydrochloric acid spilled into a stagnant pool. Calculate the quantity of 95% Ca (OH)2 required to neutralize the acid. Also, demonstrate that mass is conserved (in the stoichiometric equation, mass of reactants (negative sign)+mass of product (positive sign)= 0). Solution

1. Write the stoichiometric reaction (irreversible).

Chapter 3 | 86 pages
Mass Balance and Reactors

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EXAMPLE 3.1: SIMPLIFIED MASS BALANCE EQUATION

Simplify Equation 3.2a for a single stream entering and leaving the reaction vessel. Assume first-order reaction rate (rA=−kC).

Solution

1. Draw the reactor and system boundary (Figure 3.1).

Chapter 4 | 28 pages
Sources and Flow Rates of Municipal Wastewater

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Municipal wastewater is the general term applied to the liquid wastes collected from residential, commercial, and industrial areas of a city. In addition to these waste streams, some undesired groundwater and surface runoff may also enter the collection system. All these flows are conveyed by means of a sewerage system to a central location for treatment. There is a wide variation in seasonal, daily, and hourly flow rates of the municipal wastewater, and several flow terms are used to identify these flow variations and characterize the municipal wastewaters.

Chapter 5 | 70 pages
Characteristics of Municipal Wastewater

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Municipal wastewater contains ∼99.9% water. The remaining constituents include suspended (settleable and nonsettleable) and dissolved solids that have organic and inorganic components, as well as microorganisms. These constituents give physical, chemical, and biological qualities that are characteristics of residential, commercial, and industrial wastewaters.

Chapter 6 | 66 pages
Wastewater Treatment Objectives, Design Considerations, and tTreatment Processes

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This is an introductory chapter to provide prospective on wastewater treatment objectives and regulations, basic design considerations, and processes used for wastewater treatment. The following topics are covered:

• Wastewater treatment objectives and regulations • Basic design considerations to include current and future trends in population growth, design

period, wastewater characteristics and degree of treatment, treatment processes selection and combinations, and other design factors

خرید کتاب مهندسی فاضلاب قسمت 1و 2

• Service area, treatment plant site selection, regulatory requirements, and effluent discharge limitations • Residuals production, handling and processing technology selection and combinations, and final

disposal and reuse of biosolids • Plant layout, plant hydraulics, flow through conduits, pumping, and flow measurement • Energy and resource requirements, plant economics, and environmental impact assessment • General considerations in plant planning, design, and construction management

The objectives of a wastewater treatment plant are to meet the effluent quality standards established by the federal, state, and regional regulatory authorities; and to prevent many adverse environmental conditions that may develop due to inadequate wastewater treatment. Some of these adverse environmental conditions are (1) unsightliness, nuisance, and obnoxious odors at the plant and at the disposal site; (2) contamination of water supply sources; (3) destruction of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic life; (4) impairment of beneficial uses of receiving waters; and (5) decline in land values causing restriction in community growth and development. Ideally, a wastewater treatment plant must encourage the beneficial uses of effluent and residuals, and enhance community growth and development.

Chapter 7 | 48 pages
Screening

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Screening is normally the first unit operation utilized at a wastewater treatment plant. The purpose of screens is to remove large objects that can damage equipment, block valves, nozzles, channels, pipelines, and appurtenances. This creates serious plant operation andmaintenance problems.

Fine screens are gaining popularity as a substitute for preliminary and primary treatment to remove suspended solids and BOD. Applications of microscreens have also been developed for polishing secondary effluent or tertiary treatment. The objectives of this chapter are to present:

خرید اینترنتی کتاب تصفیه خانه های فاضلاب | تألیف سیدر قسیم

• Types of screening devices and their applications • Equipment description of coarse screens, design considerations, and installations • Design criteria of coarse screens, and design examples • Types of fine screens, design considerations, design criteria, and examples for preliminary and

primary treatment • Special screens for treatment of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) • Quantity, characteristics, handling, grinding and comminution, and disposal of screenings

Screening devices are widely used for wastewater treatment. They are broadly classified as coarse screens, fine screens, and microscreens. Coarse screens remove large objects for preliminary treatment only, while fine screens remove small particulates for either preliminary or primary treatment. Microscreens are actually filtration devices that are used for either primary or tertiary treatment.1-3 Brief information about these devices is provided in Table 7.1.

Chapter 8 | 62 pages
Grit Removal

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Grits are inert, dense, and highly abrasive material. They include pebble, sand, silt, broken glass, bone chips, and egg shells. Grit accumulates in pipes, corners, and bends, reducing flow capacity, and ultimately clogging pipes and channels.

It also accumulates in the treatment units resulting in the loss of treatment capacity. The objectives of this chapter are to present theory and design of grit removal facilities. More specifically, this chapter covers:

• Need and location of grit removal • Settling behavior of grit and types of gravity settling • Discrete settling • Types of grit removal facilities • Design criteria of grit removal facilities and design examples • Quantity, handling, and disposal of grit

دانلود ایبوک تصفیه خانه های فاضلاب برنامه ریزی، طراحی و راهبری (جلد اول)

Grit is a nonputrescible material and is much heavier than water. As a result, it makes heavy deposits in pipes and channels. Being inert and heavy, it accumulates in the aeration basin, and has cementing effect on the bottom of the sludge digesters.

This results in the loss of usable volume in both situations. Abrasive nature of grit is associated with some abnormal wear to pumps and other equipment. For these reasons, grit removal is considered essential at most treatment plants.1,2

Grit removal may normally be achieved at three locations: (1) ahead of the raw wastewater pumps, (2) below the pumping station, or (3) degritting in conjunction with primary sludge. All locations have advantages and disadvantages. Some of these are stated below.3

Chapter 9 | 172 pages
Primary and Enhanced Sedimentation

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The purpose of a primary sedimentation basin is to remove settleable organic solids. It is achieved in large basins under relatively quiescent conditions. The settled solids are collected by mechanical scrapers into a hopper, from which they are pumped to a sludge processing area. Oil, grease, and other floating materials are skimmed off from the surface. The effluent is discharged over weirs into a collection trough.

Chapter 10 | 456 pages
Biological Waste Treatment

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The purpose of a secondary wastewater treatment is to remove soluble organics and suspended solids that escape the primary treatment. These removals are typically achieved by biological treatment processes. Although, conventional biological treatment may remove 85-90% BOD5 and TSS, it does not achieve significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus removals.

Recent advancements in the biological waste treatment technology are capable of providing enhanced organics and nutrients removals. The objectives of this chapter are to provide an overview of:

• Biological waste treatment • Role of microorganisms in biological waste treatment • Microbial growth kinetics and substrate removal • Suspended, attached, and combined suspended and attached growth reactors • Oxygen and other environmental requirements • Aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic reactors • Biological nutrient removal • Theory and design examples of biological waste treatment

کتاب طراحی، برنامه‌ریزی و راهبری تصفیه‌خانه‌های فاضلاب

Substrate is the term used to denote organic matter, nutrients, and other substances that are present in wastewater. Thus, the microorganisms are used to consume organics, nitrify ammonia, denitrify nitrate, and release and uptake phosphorus. Recent advancements in biological waste treatment technology provide economical method to achieve enhanced removal of organics and substantial amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this section, the basic concepts of microbiology, growth phases, microbial metabolism and enzymes, and nutritional and environmental requirements are covered. Microbiology: A mixed culture of microorganisms plays a vital role in biological waste treatment.

In a mixed culture, the number of species and their population depends upon the characteristics of wastewater and the environmental conditions. A mixed culture of microorganisms includes bacteria (both single and multicellular), protozoa, fungi, rotifers, and sometimes nematodes. The principal organisms involved in the bio-oxidation of organics in wastewater are the single-celled bacteria. Although some individual microbial cells are present in suspended growth reactors, the majority are present as zooglea biomass or floc.

فروش نسخه ۲۰۱۸ کتاب تخصصی آب و فاضلاب دکتر قسیم

The floc consists of mixed species of cells embedded in masses of polysaccharide gums released from the slime layers of living and lysed bacterial cells.1 The protozoa, rotifers, and nematodes do not provide stabilization of organic matter in the wastewater. Instead, they feed on the bacterial population and other fragments of zooglea biomass. Their presence is simply an indication of healthy operation with appreciable aeration time.

free download Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples

The classification of microorganisms and basic concepts of microbiology are covered in Chapter 5. Basic Requirements: The basic requirements of aerobic biological waste treatment are: (1) presence of mixed population of active microorganisms, (2) good contact between microorganisms and substrates, (3) availability of oxygen, (4) availability of nutrients, and maintenance of other favorable environmental conditions such as temperature and pH, (5) sufficient contact time between food and microorganisms, and (6) effective separation of microorganisms from the treated effluent.

These conditions are achieved in a wide variety of ways. Some of these are as follows:2-4

دانلود کتاب مهندسی فاضلاب قسیم (Qasim)

• Proper equipment and reactor design, and selection and assembly of hardware • Effective ways to bring contact between the food and microorganisms • Innovative ways to supply oxygen and maintain mixing • Efficient ways to separate microorganisms and release the treated effluent

Details of these conditions are provided in later sections of this chapter. Growth Phase: The bacteria reproduce by binary fission (division of original cell into two new cells).

Time required for each fission is called generation time, which may vary from less than 20 minutes to several days. The growth of microorganisms in a batch reactor may be expressed in terms of time versus viable bacterial number or biomass. The viable bacterial number curve has six distinct phases.

مشخصات کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment Syed R. Qasim Download Ebook 9781351402026

Features

  • Provides in-depth coverage of wastewater treatment objectives, design considerations and treatment processes and process diagrams.
  • Includes over 650 illustrative example problems on almost every topic, worked out in detail, to enhance comprehension and deeper understanding of the basic concepts.
  • Covers all phases of treatment: preliminary, primary, secondary, disinfection, natural and advanced treatment processes.
  • Offers step-by-step theory and design calculations, equipment selection, unit layout, and operation and maintenance.
  • Includes numerous useful appendices: abbreviations and symbols, a listing of commonly used chemicals, physical constants of water and solubility, unit conversions, and more.

Summary

This book will present the theory involved in wastewater treatment processes, define the important design parameters involved, and provide typical values of these parameters for ready reference; and also provide numerical applications and step-by-step calculation procedures in solved examples. These examples and solutions will help enhance the readers’ comprehension and deeper understanding of the basic concepts, and can be applied by plant designers to design various components of the treatment facilities.

It will also examine the actual calculation steps in numerical examples, focusing on practical application of theory and principles into process and water treatment facility design.

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781351402026

دانلود ایبوک Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Volume 1

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
VOLUME 1 Principles and Basic Treatment
1 Introduction to Wastewater Treatment: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.1 Historical Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 Current Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.3 Future Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.3.1 Health and Environmental Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.3.2 Improved Wastewater Characterization and Sidestreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.3.3 Rehabilitation of Aging Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

کتاب طراحی، برنامه‌ریزی و راهبری تصفیه‌خانه‌های فاضلاب


1.3.4 Energy Reduction and Recovery from Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.5 Building, Retrofitting, and Upgrading POTWs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.6 Process Selection, Performance, Reliability, and Resiliency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.7 Reduction in Sludge Quantity, Nutrients Recovery, and Biosolids Reuse . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.8 Effluent Disposal and Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.9 Control of Combined Sewer Overflows and Stormwater Management . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.10 Decentralized and On-Site Treatment and Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.3.11 Technology Assessment and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.4 Wastewater Treatment Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.5 Scope of This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment
Book by Gang Zhu and Syed R Qasim


2 Stoichiometry and Reaction Kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2 Stoichiometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2.1 Homogeneous Reactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2.2 Heterogeneous Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.3 Reaction Rates and Order of Reaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
2.3.1 Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
2.3.2 Saturation-Type or Enzymatic Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.4 Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
v
2.5 Reaction Order Data Analysis and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2.5.1 Zero-Order Reaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
2.5.2 First-Order Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
2.5.3 Second-Order Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35

دانلود ایبوک Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Volume 1


3 Mass Balance and Reactors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.2 Mass Balance Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.2.1 Procedure for Mass Balance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2.2 Combining Flow Streams of a Single Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.2.3 Combining a Conservative Substance and Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3.2.4 Mass or Concentration of Nonconservative Substances in Reactors . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3.3 Flow Regime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.4 Types of Reactors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.4.1 Batch Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.4.2 Continuous-Flow Stirred-Tank Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18

کتاب طراحی، برنامه‌ریزی و راهبری تصفیه‌ خانه‌ های فاضلاب قسیم


3.4.3 Plug Flow Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34
3.4.4 Comparative Performance of a PFR and CFSTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39
3.4.5 Performance of CFSTRs in Series (Cascade Arrangement) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44
3.4.6 Graphical Solution of Series CFSTRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52
3.5 Plug Flow Reactors with Dispersion and Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56
3.5.1 Flow Regime and Dispersion of Tracer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56
3.5.2 Performance Evaluation of Sedimentation Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-56
3.5.3 Dispersion with Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-62
3.6 Equalization of Flow and Mass Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69
3.6.1 Need and Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69
3.6.2 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-70
3.6.3 Design Volume of Equalization Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-71
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-83
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-85

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment
Book by Gang Zhu and Syed R Qasim


4 Sources and Flow Rates of Municipal Wastewater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.2 Relationship between Municipal Water Demand and Wastewater Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.3 Components of Municipal Water Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.3.1 Residential or Domestic Water Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.3.2 Commercial Water Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.3.3 Institutional and Public Water Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.3.4 Industrial Water Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.3.5 Water Unaccounted or or Lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.3.6 Factors Affecting Water Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.4 Wastewater Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
4.5 Wastewater Flow Variation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.5.1 Dry Weather Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.5.2 Infiltration and Inflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
4.5.3 Common Terms Used to Express Flow Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
vi Contents
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27

دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Volume 1


5 Characteristics of Municipal Wastewater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2 Physical Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2.1 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2.2 Color, Turbidity, and Odor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2.3 Settleable and Suspended (Non), Dissolved (Filterable), Volatile
and Fixed Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3
5.3 Chemical Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.4 Measurement of Organic Matter and Organic Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.4.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.4.2 Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
5.4.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-30
5.4.4 Total Organic Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33

دانلود رایگان کتاب قسیم


5.4.5 Total Oxygen Demand and Theoretical Oxygen Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33
5.4.6 Relationship between BOD5 and Other Tests Used for
Organic Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-33
5.4.7 Other Nonspecific and Specific Tests for Organic Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35
5.4.8 Nonbiodegradable and Toxic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-36
5.5 Microbiological Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-36
5.5.1 Basic Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-36
5.5.2 Indicator Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-38
5.5.3 Measurement Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-39
5.6 Priority Pollutants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-50
5.7 Toxicity and Biomonitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-50
5.7.1 Toxicity Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-51
5.7.2 Toxicity Test Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-51
5.8 Unit Waste Loading and Population Equivalent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-57
5.9 Mass Loadings and Sustained Mass Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-60
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-65
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-69

دانلودPDF کتاب astewater Treatment and Reuse Volume 1


6 Wastewater Treatment Objectives, Design Considerations, and
Treatment Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
6.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2 Treatment Objectives and Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2.1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2.2 Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.3 Basic Design Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.3.1 Initial and Design Years and Design Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
6.3.2 Service Area and Treatment Plant Site Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
6.3.3 Regulatory Requirements and Effluent Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
6.3.4 Characteristics of Wastewater and Degree of Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
6.3.5 Treatment Processes, Process Diagrams, and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
6.3.6 Plant Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-38
6.3.7 Plant Hydraulic Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-39
Contents vii

کتاب طراحی تصفیه خانه فاضلاب (قسیم)

6.3.8 Plant Hydraulic Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-50
6.3.9 Energy and Resource Requirements and Plant Economics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-53
6.3.10 Environmental Impact Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-53
6.4 Wastewater Facility Planning, Design, and Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-57
6.4.1 Facility Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-57
6.4.2 Design Plans, Specifications, Cost Estimates, and Support Documents . . . . . . . 6-58
6.4.3 Construction and Construction Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-61
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-61
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-63
7 Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

دانلود رایگان کتاب قسیم


7.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2 Screening Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2.1 Coarse Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2.2 Design Considerations of Coarse Screens and Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.2.3 Fine Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
7.2.4 Design of Fine Screens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32
7.2.5 Special Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-40
7.3 Quantity, Characteristics, and Disposal of Screeings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-41
7.3.1 Quantity and Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-41
7.3.2 Processing and Disposal of Screenings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-41
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-43
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-45

دانلود ایبوک Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Volume 1


8 Grit Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2 Need and Location of Grit Removal Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.3 Gravity Settling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.3.1 Types of Gravity Settling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.3.2 Discrete Settling (Type I) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.4 Types of Grit Removal Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
8.4.1 Horizontal-Flow Grit Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
8.4.2 Design of Effluent Trough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-36
8.4.3 Aerated Grit Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-43
8.4.4 Vortex-Type Grit Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-51
8.4.5 Sludge Degritting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-55
8.4.6 Grit Collection and Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-56
8.5 Grit Characteristics and Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-56
8.6 Grit Processing, Reuse, and Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-57
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-59
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-60

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment
Book by Gang Zhu and Syed R Qasim


9 Primary and Enhanced Sedimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.2 Flocculent Settling (Type II). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.3 Influent Quality of Primary Sedimentation Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
9.4 Types of Primary Sedimentation Basins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
9.4.1 Rectangular Basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
viii Contents
9.4.2 Circular Basins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
9.4.3 Square Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
9.4.4 Stacked, Multilevel, or Multitray Tanks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
9.4.5 Basic Design and Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17

دانلود کتاب qasim


9.5 Enhanced Primary Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-52
9.5.1 Preaeration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-52
9.5.2 Chemical Coagulation and Precipitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-53
9.5.3 Effluent Neutralization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-60
9.5.4 Sludge Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-60
9.5.5 Rapid Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-85
9.5.6 Slow Mixing or Flocculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-91
9.6 High-Rate Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-143
9.6.1 Solids Contact Clarifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-143
9.6.2 Inclined Surface Clarifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-144
9.6.3 Micro-Sand Ballasted Flocculation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-147
9.6.4 Solids-Ballasted Flocculation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-150
9.7 Fine Mesh Screens for Primary Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-161
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-166
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-169

eBOOK – D0WNL0AD Wastewater Treatment and Reuse PDF


10 Biological Waste Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2 Fundamentals of Biological Waste Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2.1 Biological Growth and Substrate Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2.2 Types of Biological Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
10.3 Suspended Growth Aerobic Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
10.3.1 Microbial Growth Kinetics in Batch Reactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
10.3.2 Microbial Growth Kinetics in Continuous Flow Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
10.3.3 Continuous Flow Completely Mixed Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32
10.3.4 Determination of Biological Kinetic Coefficients in a Continuous Flow
Completely Mixed Reactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-54
10.3.5 Continuous Plug-Flow Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-63
10.3.6 Operational Parameters of Activated Sludge Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-68

دانلود کتاب qasim


10.3.7 Activated Sludge Process Modifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-74
10.3.8 Oxygen Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-103
10.3.9 Aeration Device, Equipment, and Hardware Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-142
10.3.10 Aeration System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-144
10.3.11 Aerated Lagoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-172
10.3.12 Stabilization Ponds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-191
10.4 Fixed-Film or Attached Growth Aerobic Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-209
10.4.1 Nonsubmerged Attached Growth Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-209
10.4.2 Combined Attached and Suspended Growth Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-247
10.4.3 Integrated Fixed-Film Media in Aeration Basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-254
10.4.4 Submerged Attached Growth Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-260
10.5 Anaerobic Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-265
10.5.1 Capabilities of Anaerobic Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-265
10.5.2 Fundamentals of Anaerobic Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-265
10.5.3 Environmental Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-266
10.5.4 Process Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-267
Contents ix

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment
Book by Gang Zhu and Syed R Qasim

10.5.5 Anaerobic Suspended Growth Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-279
10.5.6 Anaerobic Attached Growth Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-290
10.6 Biological Nitrogen Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-297
10.6.1 Nitrification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-297
10.6.2 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-337
10.7 Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-371
10.7.1 Process Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-371
10.7.2 Biochemical Reactions in Anaerobic Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-372
10.7.3 Biochemical Reactions in Aerobic Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-375
10.7.4 Overall Process Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-375

دانلود کتاب WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS By Qasim


10.7.5 Biosolids from EBPR Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-376
10.8 Biological Nutrient Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-384
10.8.1 General Description of BNR Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-385
10.8.2 Performance of BNR Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-385
10.8.3 General Design Considerations for BNR Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-385
10.8.4 Computer Application for BNR Facility Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-408
10.9 Secondary Clarification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-412
10.9.1 Design Considerations for Secondary Clarifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-412
10.9.2 Zone or Hindered Settling (Type III) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-412
10.9.3 Design of Secondary Clarifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-427
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-435
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-445

CRC Press Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design

VOLUME 2 Post-Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal
11 Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.2 Objectives and Requirements of Disinfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-1
11.2.1 Pathogens and Indicator Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-1
11.2.2 Microbial Reduction in Wastewater Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-3
11.2.3 Regulatory Process and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-7
11.3 Disinfection Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-7
11.3.1 Chemical Disinfection Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-8
11.3.2 Physical Disinfection Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-8
11.3.3 Suitability of Disinfection Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-8
11.3.4 Chlorine and Ozone Doses for Required Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-9

تصفیه خانه‌های فاضلاب، برنامه‌ریزی، طراحی و راهبری(جلد اول)


11.3.5 Disinfection By-products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-9
11.4 Inactivation Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-9
11.5 Inactivation Kinetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-11
11.5.1 Natural Die-O
ff Kinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
11.5.2 Inactivation Kinetics for Chemical Disinfection Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-15
11.6 Chlorination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-29
11.6.1 Physical Properties of Chlorine and Hypochlorite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-30
11.6.2 Basic Chlorine Chemistry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-36
11.6.3 Components of Chlorination System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-55
11.6.4 Other Bene
ficial Applications of Chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-68
11.6.5 Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-73
11.7 Dechlorination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-76
11.7.1 Dechlorination with Sulfur Dioxide (SO
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-76
x Contents

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment

11.7.2 Dechlorination with Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
11.7.3 Dechlorination with Other Reducing Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-78
11.7.4 Dechlorination with Activated Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-78
11.7.5 Dechlorination of Chlorine Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-78
11.8 Disinfection with Ozone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-81
11.8.1 Ozone Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-81
11.8.2 Properties of Ozone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-82
11.8.3 Ozone Dosage for Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-82

طراحی تصفیه خانه آب و فاضلاب در مورد بهداشت ایمنی


11.8.4 Ozone Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-83
11.8.5 Ozone Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-85
11.8.6 Kinetic Equations for Ozone Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-87
11.9 Disinfection with UV Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-97
11.9.1 Mechanism of UV Disinfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-97
11.9.2 Source of UV Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-97
11.9.3 Types of UV Reactors and Lamp Arrangements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-98
11.9.4 Microbial Repair after UV Disinfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-98
11.9.5 Inactivation Kinetics for UV Irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-100
11.9.6 UV Transmittance, Density, Intensity, and Dose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-111
11.9.7 Major Components of Open-Channel UV Disinfection Systems . . . . . . . . . . .
11-115
11.9.8 Hydraulics of UV Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-116
11.10 Recent Developments in Disinfection Reactor Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-129
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-130
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-134

CRC Press Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design


12 Effluent Reuse and Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2 Major Issues Related to E
ffluent Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2.1 Quality Parameters of Reclaimed Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-1
12.2.2 Treatment Technology for Reclaimed Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-2
12.2.3 Regulations or Guidelines Regarding Reuse of Reclaimed Water . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-7
12.3 Health Risk Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-7
12.3.1 Quantitative Toxicology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-7
12.3.2 Risk Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-12
12.3.3 Assessment of Noncarcinogenic E
ffects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
12.3.4 Assessment of Carcinogenic E
ffects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16

دانلود کتاب طراحی و بهره برداری تصفیه خانه فاضلاب (قسیم)


12.4 Storage Facility for Reclaimed Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-24
12.4.1 Enclosed Storage Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-24
12.4.2 Open Storage Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-25
12.5 Reclaimed Water Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-27
12.5.1 Urban Water Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-27
12.5.2 Industrial Water Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-28
12.5.3 Agricultural Irrigation Reuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-35
12.5.4 Impoundments for Recreational and Aesthetic Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-40
12.5.5 Environmental Reuse for Habitat Restoration and Enhancement. . . . . . . . . . . .
12-40
12.5.6 Groundwater Recharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-41
12.5.7 Augmentation of Potable Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-45
12.6 E
ffluent Discharge into Natural Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-48
12.6.1 Requirements of Outfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-48
12.6.2 Water Quality Models of Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-49
12.6.3 Design of Outfall Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-65
Contents xi

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment

Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-73
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-77
13 Residuals Processing, Disposal, and Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.2 Conventional and Emerging Technologies for Sludge Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-1
13.3 Characteristics of Municipal Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-2
13.3.1 Sources and Solids Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-2
13.3.2 Sludge Quantity Variations and Solids and Volume Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-2
13.3.3 Sludge and Scum Pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-4
13.3.4 Preliminary Sludge Preparation Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-6
13.4 Conventional Sludge Processing Systems, Process Diagrams, and
Regulatory Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-14
13.4.1 Sludge Processing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-14
13.4.2 Sidestreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-14
13.4.3 Process Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-14
13.4.4 Regulatory Requirements for Biosolids Reuse and Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-14

تصفیه خانه های فاضلاب برنامه ریزی، طراحی و راهبری (جلد اول)


13.5 Sludge Thickening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-22
13.5.1 Gravity Thickening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-22
13.5.2 Dissolved Air Flotation Thickening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-33
13.5.3 Centrifugal Thickening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-37
13.5.4 Gravity Belt Thickening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-38
13.5.5 Rotary Drum Thickener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-40
13.5.6 Membrane Thickener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-40
13.6 Sludge Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-41
13.6.1 Anaerobic Digestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-41
13.6.2 Aerobic Digestion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-72
13.6.3 Chemical Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-89
13.6.4 Heat Treatment or Thermal Stabilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-90

دانلود کتاب تصفیه فاضلاب قسیم-بخش دوم – مهندسی بهداشت محیط زیست


13.7 Sludge Conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-90
13.7.1 Chemical Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-90
13.7.2 Physical Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-97
13.8 Sludge Dewatering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-97
13.8.1 Natural Dewatering Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-98
13.8.2 Mechanical Dewatering Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-109
13.9 Material Mass Balance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-125
13.10 Emerging Technologies for Enhanced Sludge Stabilization
and Resource Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-134
13.10.1 Pretreatment of Sludge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-134
13.10.2 Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-136
13.10.3 Resource Recovery from Municipal Sludge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-137
13.10.4 Nitrogen Removal by Partial Nitri
fication/Anammox
(PN
/A) Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-139
13.11 Sludge Disposal and Biosolids Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-147
13.11.1 Composting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-148
13.11.2 Heat Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-159
13.11.3 Thermal Oxidations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-159
13.11.4 Recalcination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-164
13.11.5 Land Application of Biosolids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-164
xii Contents
13.11.6 Residuals Disposal by Landfilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-176
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-182
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-186

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14 Plant Layout, Yard Piping, Plant Hydraulics, and Instrumentation
and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-1
14.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.2 Plant Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-1
14.2.1 Factors A
ffecting Plant Layout and Site Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.2.2 Construction Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-2
14.2.3 Compact and Modular Site Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-3
14.2.4 Plant Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-4
14.2.5 Environmental Considerations and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-4
14.2.6 Occupational Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-5
14.2.7 Future Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-5
14.3 Yard Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-10


14.3.1 Organizing Yard Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-10
14.3.2 Pipe Galleries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-10
14.3.3 Considerations for Plant Upgrading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-11
14.4 Plant Hydraulics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-11
14.4.1 Hydraulic Pro
file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
14.4.2 Head Losses through Treatment Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-12
14.4.3 Head Losses through Connecting Conduits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-12
14.5 Instrumentation and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-21
14.5.1 Bene
fits of Instrumentation and Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-21
14.5.2 Components of Control Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-21
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-37
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-40

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Treatment


15 Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Upgrading Secondary
Treatment Facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-1
15.1 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.2 Application of Advanced Treatment Technologies and Upgrading of
Secondary E
ffluent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.3 Natural Treatment Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-1
15.3.1 Terrestrial Treatment Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-2
15.3.2 Aquatic Treatment Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-14
15.4 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-26
15.4.1 Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-26
15.4.2 Chemical Coagulation and Phosphorus Precipitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-27
15.4.3 Lime Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-28
15.4.4 Breakpoint Chlorination for Ammonia Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-28
15.4.5 Air Stripping for Removal of Dissolved Gases and VOCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-29
15.4.6 Granular Filtration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-40
15.4.7 Surface Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-74
15.4.8 Carbon Adsorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-78
15.4.9 Ion Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-100
Contents xiii
15.4.10 Membrane Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-120
15.4.11 Concentration and Disposal of Waste Brine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-146
Discussion Topics and Review Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-153
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-156

ePUB eBOOK – D0WNL0AD Wastewater Treatment and Reuse PDF


Appendix A: Abbreviations and Symbols, Basic Information about Elements, Useful
Constants, Common Chemicals Used in Water and Wastewater
Treatment, and the U.S. Standard Sieves and Size of Openings. . . . . . . . . .
A-1
Appendix B: Physical Constants and Properties of Water, Solubility of
Dissolved Gases in Water, and Important Constants for Stability
and Sodicity of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B-1
Appendix C: Minor Head Loss Coefficients for Pressure Conduits and Open
Channels, Normal Commercial Pipe Sizes, and Design Information
of Parshall Flume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-1
Appendix D: Unit Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
Appendix E: Summary of Design Parameters for Wastewater
Treatment Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-1
Appendix F: List of Examples and Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1

دانلود رایگان Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Theory and Design Examples

تصویر چند صفحه از کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: Theory and Design Examples: 1st Edition by Syed R. Qasim,‎ Guang Zhu CRC Press (2018) جهت اطمینان ار کیفیت کتاب در زیر قرار داده شده است.

دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment Syed R. Qasim Download Ebook 9781351402026 Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 - 9781138300897 تصفیه خانه های فاضلاب برنامه ریزی، طراحی و راهبری (جلد دوم)گیگاپیپر
دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples Qasim Download Ebook تصفیه خانه های فاضلاب برنامه ریزی، طراحی و راهبری (جلد دوم)
دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment Syed R. Qasim Download Ebook 9781351402026 Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 - 9781138300897گیگاپیپر
دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment Syed R. Qasim Download Ebook

 

دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic Treatment Syed R. Qasim Download Ebook 9781351402026 Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 - 9781138300897 - کتاب طراحی تصفیه خانه فاضلاب (قسیم)گیگاپیپر
دانلود کتاب Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Theory and Design Examples, Volume 1 Principles and Basic کتاب طراحی تصفیه خانه فاضلاب (قسیم)

 

کلمات کلیدی  : Metcalf and Eddy,qasim,بهره برداری از تصفیه خانه,تصفیه آب,تصفیه خانه آب,تصفیه خانه فاضلاب,تصفیه فاضلاب,تکنولوژی های تصفیه آب و فاضلاب,دانلود کتاب مرجع آب و فاضلاب,طراحی تصفیه خانه,طراحی تصفیه خانه فاضلاب,قسیم,کتاب,کتاب تصفیه آب,کتاب تصفیه فاضلاب,کتاب تصفیه فاضلاب شهری,متکف,مهندسی آب و فاضلاب,مهندسی فاضلاب,هندبوک,هندبوک آب و فاضلاب,هندبوک مهندسی

 

 

 

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