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دانلود حل المسائل کتاب Biological Psychology حل المسائل کتاب روانشناسی زیستی 978-1337408202—–9781337408202
Biological Psychology 13th Edition
by James W. Kalat  (Author)

ISBN-13: 978-1337408202
ISBN-10: 9781337408202

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دانلود حل المسائل کتاب Biological Psychology

The most widely used text in its course area, James W. Kalat’s BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY has appealed to thousands of students before you. Why? Kalat’s main goal is to make Biological Psychology understandable to Psychology students, not just to Biology majors and pre meds–and he delivers. Another goal is to convey the excitement of the search for biological explanations of behavior. Kalat believes that Biological Psychology is “the most interesting topic in the world,” and this text convinces many students–and maybe you, too–with clear writing, amusing anecdotes and intriguing examples. MindTap, an interactive online learning resource that integrates the text with videos, animations and a virtual bio-lab component, makes learning even easier and more enjoyable.

دانلود ایبوک روانشناسی غیرعادی ویرایش یازدهم یادگیری مک میلان

پرکاربردترین متن در حوزه درس خود، روانشناسی زیستی جیمز دبلیو. کالات، هزاران دانش آموز را قبل از شما جذاب کرده است. چرا؟ هدف اصلی Kalat این است که روانشناسی زیستی را برای دانشجویان روانشناسی قابل درک کند، نه فقط برای رشته های زیست شناسی و پیش پزشکی – و او ارائه می دهد. هدف دیگر انتقال هیجان ناشی از جستجوی توضیحات بیولوژیکی رفتار است. کلات معتقد است که روانشناسی زیستی “جالب ترین موضوع در جهان” است و این متن با نوشتن واضح، حکایات سرگرم کننده و مثال های جذاب بسیاری از دانشجویان – و شاید شما را نیز متقاعد می کند. MindTap، یک منبع یادگیری آنلاین تعاملی است که متن را با فیلم‌ها، انیمیشن‌ها و یک جزء آزمایشگاهی مجازی ادغام می‌کند، یادگیری را حتی آسان‌تر و لذت‌بخش‌تر می‌کند.

فهرست مطالب حل المسائل کتاب Biological Psychology

COVER PAGE
TITLE PAGE
COPYRIGHT PAGE
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
DEDICATION
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
INTRODUCTION: OVERVIEW AND MAJOR ISSUESI-1. The Biological Approach to BehaviorI-1a. The Field of Biological Psychology
I-1b. Three Main Points to Remember from This Book
I-2. Biological Explanations of Behavior
I-3. Career Opportunities
I-4. The Use of Animals in ResearchI-4a. Degrees of Opposition
I-5a. Your Brain and Your Experience
I-5b. Summary
I-5c. Key Terms
I-5d. Thought Question
I-5e. End of Introduction Quiz
I-5f. Suggestions for Further Reading
1. NERVE CELLS AND NERVE IMPULSESModule 1.1. The Cells of the Nervous SystemNeurons and GliaSantiago Ramón y Cajal, a Pioneer of Neuroscience
The Structures of an Animal Cell
The Structure of a Neuron
Variations among Neurons
Glia
The Blood–Brain BarrierWhy We Need a Blood–Brain Barrier
How the Blood–Brain Barrier Works
Nourishment of Vertebrate Neurons
Neurons
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 1.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 1.2. The Nerve ImpulseThe Resting Potential of the NeuronForces Acting on Sodium and Potassium Ions
Why a Resting Potential?
The Action PotentialThe All-or-None Law
The Molecular Basis of the Action Potential
Propagation of the Action Potential
The Myelin Sheath and Saltatory ConductionThe Refractory Period
Local Neurons
Neurons and Messages
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 1.2 End of Module Quiz
Suggestion for Further Reading
2. SYNAPSESModule 2.1. The Concept of the SynapseProperties of SynapsesSpeed of a Reflex and Delayed Transmission at the Synapse
Temporal Summation
Spatial Summation
Inhibitory Synapses
Relationship among EPSP, IPSP, and Action Potentials
The Neuron as Decision Maker
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 2.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 2.2. Chemical Events at the SynapseThe Discovery of Chemical Transmission at Synapses
The Sequence of Chemical Events at a SynapseTypes of Neurotransmitters
Synthesis of Transmitters
Storage of Transmitters
Release and Diffusion of Transmitters
Activating Receptors of the Postsynaptic Cell
Ionotropic Effects
Metabotropic Effects and Second Messenger Systems
Neuropeptides
Variation in Receptors
Drugs That Act by Binding to Receptors
Inactivation and Reuptake of Neurotransmitters
Negative Feedback from the Postsynaptic Cell
Electrical Synapses
Hormones
Neurotransmitters and Behavior
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 2.2 End of Module Quiz
Suggestion for Further Reading
3. ANATOMY AND RESEARCH METHODSModule 3.1. Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous SystemTerminology to Describe the Nervous System
The Spinal Cord
The Autonomic Nervous System
The Hindbrain
The Midbrain
The ForebrainThalamus
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Basal Ganglia
Basal Forebrain
Hippocampus
The Ventricles
Learning Neuroanatomy
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 3.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 3.2. The Cerebral CortexOrganization of the Cerebral Cortex
The Occipital Lobe
The Parietal Lobe
The Temporal Lobe
The Frontal LobeThe Rise and Fall of Prefrontal Lobotomies
Functions of the Prefrontal Cortex
How Do the Parts Work Together?
Functions of the Cerebral Cortex
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 3.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 3.3. Research MethodsEffects of Brain Damage
Effects of Brain Stimulation
Recording Brain Activity
Correlating Brain Anatomy with Behavior
Research Methods and Progress
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 3.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
4. GENETICS, EVOLUTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PLASTICITYModule 4.1. Genetics and Evolution of BehaviorMendelian GeneticsSex-Linked and Sex-Limited Genes
Genetic Changes
Epigenetics
Heredity and EnvironmentEnvironmental Modification
How Genes Influence Behavior
The Evolution of BehaviorCommon Misunderstandings about Evolution
Evolutionary Psychology
Genes and Behavior
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 4.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 4.2. Development of the BrainMaturation of the Vertebrate BrainGrowth and Development of Neurons
New Neurons Later in Life
Pathfinding by AxonsChemical Pathfinding by Axons
Competition among Axons as a General Principle
Determinants of Neuronal Survival
The Vulnerable Developing Brain
Differentiation of the Cortex
Fine-Tuning by ExperienceExperience and Dendritic Branching
Effects of Special Experiences
Brain Development and Behavioral DevelopmentAdolescence
Old Age
Brain Development
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 4.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 4.3. Plasticity after Brain DamageBrain Damage and Short-Term RecoveryReducing the Harm from a Stroke
Later Mechanisms of RecoveryIncreased Brain Stimulation
Regrowth of Axons
Axon Sprouting
Denervation Supersensitivity
Reorganized Sensory Representations and the Phantom Limb
Learned Adjustments in Behavior
Brain Damage and Recovery
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 4.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
5. VISIONModule 5.1. Visual CodingGeneral Principles of Perception
The Eye and Its Connections to the BrainRoute within the Retina
Fovea and Periphery of the Retina
Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
Color VisionThe Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) Theory
The Opponent-Process Theory
The Retinex Theory
Color Vision Deficiency
Visual Receptors
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 5.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 5.2. How the Brain Processes Visual InformationAn Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
Processing in the Retina
Further Processing
The Primary Visual CortexSimple and Complex Receptive Fields
The Columnar Organization of the Visual Cortex
Are Visual Cortex Cells Feature Detectors?
Development of the Visual CortexDeprived Experience in One Eye
Deprived Experience in both Eyes
Uncorrelated Stimulation in the Two Eyes
Early Exposure to a Limited Array of Patterns
Impaired Infant Vision and Long-Term Consequences
Understanding Vision by Understanding the Wiring Diagram
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 5.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 5.3. Parallel Processing in the Visual CortexThe Ventral and Dorsal Paths
Detailed Analysis of ShapeThe Inferior Temporal Cortex
Recognizing Faces
Motion PerceptionThe Middle Temporal Cortex
Motion Blindness
Aspects of Vision
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 5.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
6. OTHER SENSORY SYSTEMSModule 6.1. AuditionSound and the EarPhysics and Psychology of Sound
Structures of the Ear
Pitch Perception
The Auditory Cortex
Sound Localization
Individual DifferencesDeafness
Hearing, Attention, and Old Age
Functions of Hearing
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 6.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 6.2. The Mechanical SensesVestibular Sensation
SomatosensationSomatosensory Receptors
Tickle
Somatosensation in the Central Nervous System
PainStimuli and Spinal Cord Paths
Emotional Pain
Ways of Relieving Pain
Sensitization of Pain
Itch
The Mechanical Senses
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 6.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 6.3. The Chemical SensesTasteTaste Receptors
How Many Kinds of Taste Receptors?
Mechanisms of Taste Receptors
Taste Coding in the Brain
Variations in Taste Sensitivity
OlfactionOlfactory Receptors
Implications for Coding
Messages to the Brain
Individual Differences
Pheromones
Synesthesia
Senses as Ways of Knowing the World
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 6.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
7. MOVEMENTModule 7.1. The Control of MovementMuscles and Their MovementsFast and Slow Muscles
Muscle Control by Proprioceptors
Units of MovementVoluntary and Involuntary Movements
Movements Varying in Sensitivity to Feedback
Sequences of Behaviors
Categories of Movement
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 7.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 7.2. Brain Mechanisms of MovementThe Cerebral CortexPlanning a Movement
Inhibiting a Movement
Mirror Neurons
Connections from the Brain to the Spinal Cord
The CerebellumFunctions Other than Movement
Cellular Organization
The Basal Ganglia
Brain Areas and Motor Learning
Conscious Decisions and Movement
Movement Control and Cognition
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 7.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 7.3. Movement DisordersParkinson’s DiseaseCauses
L-Dopa Treatment
Other Therapies
Huntington’s DiseaseHeredity and Presymptomatic Testing
Movement Disorders Affect More than Movement
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 7.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
8. WAKEFULNESS AND SLEEPModule 8.1. Rhythms of Waking and SleepingEndogenous Rhythms
Setting and Resetting the Biological ClockJet Lag
Shift Work
Morning People and Evening People
Mechanisms of the Biological ClockThe Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
How Light Resets the SCN
The Biochemistry of the Circadian Rhythm
Melatonin
Sleep–Wake Cycles
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 8.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 8.2. Stages of Sleep and Brain MechanismsSleep and Other Interruptions of Consciousness
The Stages of Sleep
Paradoxical or REM Sleep
Brain Mechanisms of Wakefulness, Arousal, and SleepBrain Structures of Arousal and Attention
Sleep and the Inhibition of Brain Activity
Brain Activity in REM Sleep
Sleep DisordersSleep Apnea
Narcolepsy
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
REM Behavior Disorder
Night Terrors and Sleepwalking
Stages of Sleep
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 8.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 8.3. Why Sleep? Why REM? Why Dreams?Functions of SleepSleep and Energy Conservation
Analogous to Sleep: Hibernation
Species Differences in Sleep
Sleep and Memory
Functions of REM Sleep
Biological Perspectives on DreamingThe Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
The Neurocognitive Hypothesis
Our Limited Self-Understanding
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 8.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
9. INTERNAL REGULATIONModule 9.1. Temperature RegulationHomeostasis and Allostasis
Controlling Body TemperatureSurviving in Extreme Cold
The Advantages of Constant High Body Temperature
Brain Mechanisms
Fever
Combining Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 9.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 9.2. ThirstMechanisms of Water Regulation
Osmotic Thirst
Hypovolemic Thirst and Sodium-Specific Hunger
The Psychology and Biology of Thirst
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 9.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 9.3. HungerDigestion and Food SelectionConsumption of Dairy Products
Food Selection and Behavior
Short- and Long-Term Regulation of FeedingOral Factors
The Stomach and Intestines
Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon
Leptin
Brain MechanismsThe Arcuate Nucleus and Paraventricular Hypothalamus
The Lateral Hypothalamus
Medial Areas of the Hypothalamus
Eating DisordersGenetics and Body Weight
Weight Loss Techniques
Bulimia Nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa
The Multiple Controls of Hunger
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 9.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
10. REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORSModule 10.1. Sex and HormonesOrganizing Effects of Sex HormonesSex Differences in the Brain
Sex Differences in Play
Activating Effects of Sex HormonesMales
Females
Effects of Sex Hormones on Nonsexual Characteristics
Parental Behavior
Reproductive Behaviors and Motivations
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 10.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 10.2. Variations in Sexual BehaviorEvolutionary Interpretations of Mating BehaviorInterest in Multiple Mates
What Men and Women Seek in a Mate
Differences in Jealousy
Evolved or Learned?
Gender Identity and Gender-Differentiated BehaviorsIntersexes
Interests and Preferences of Girls with CAH
Testicular Feminization
Issues of Gender Assignment and Rearing
Discrepancies of Sexual Appearance
Sexual OrientationBehavioral and Anatomical Differences
Genetics
An Evolutionary Question
Prenatal Influences
Brain Anatomy
We Are Not All the Same
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 10.2 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
11. EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORSModule 11.1. What is Emotion?Emotions and Autonomic ArousalIs Physiological Arousal Necessary for Emotional Feelings?
Is Physiological Arousal Sufficient for Emotions?
Is Emotion a Useful Concept?
Do People Have a Few Basic Emotions?
The Functions of EmotionEmotions and Moral Decisions
Emotions and the Nervous System
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 11.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 11.2. Attack and Escape BehaviorsAttack BehaviorsHeredity and Environment in Violence
Hormonal Effects
Serotonin Synapses and Aggressive Behavior
Testosterone, Serotonin, and Cortisol
Fear and AnxietyRole of the Amygdala in Rodents
Studies of the Amygdala in Monkeys
Response of the Human Amygdala to Visual Stimuli
Individual Differences in Amygdala Response and Anxiety
Damage to the Human Amygdala
Anxiety Disorders
Relief from AnxietyPharmacological Relief
Alcohol and Anxiety
Doing Something about Emotions
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 11.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 11.3. Stress and HealthStress and the General Adaptation Syndrome
Stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex AxisThe Immune System
Effects of Stress on the Immune System
Coping with Stress
Emotions and Body Reactions
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 11.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
12. LEARNING, MEMORY, AND INTELLIGENCEModule 12.1. Learning, Memory, and Memory LossLocalized Representations of MemoryLashley’s Search for the Engram
The Modern Search for the Engram
Types of MemoryShort-Term and Long-Term Memory
Our Changing Views of Consolidation
Working Memory
Memory LossKorsakoff’s Syndrome
Alzheimer’s Disease
Infant Amnesia
Memory and Forgetting
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 12.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 12.2. The Hippocampus and the StriatumMemory Loss after Damage to the HippocampusAnterograde and Retrograde Amnesia
Theories of the Function of the Hippocampus
Navigation
The Striatum
Other Brain Areas and Memory
Brain Damage and Memory
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 12.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 12.3. Storing Information in the Nervous SystemBlind Alleys and Abandoned Mines
Learning and the Hebbian Synapse
Single-Cell Mechanisms of Invertebrate Behavior ChangeAplysia as an Experimental Animal
Habituation in Aplysia
Sensitization in Aplysia
Long-Term Potentiation in VertebratesBiochemical Mechanisms
Improving Memory
The Physiology of Memory
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 12.3 End of Module Quiz
Module 12.4. IntelligenceBrain Size and IntelligenceComparing Species
Human Data
Genetics and Intelligence
Brain Evolution
Why Are We so Intelligent?
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 12.4 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
13. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONSModule 13.1. Lateralization and LanguageThe Left and Right HemispheresAnatomical Differences between the Hemispheres
Visual and Auditory Connections to the Hemispheres
The Corpus Callosum and the Split-Brain OperationSplit Hemispheres: Competition and Cooperation
The Right Hemisphere
Avoiding Overstatements
Evolution of LanguageChimpanzees
Bonobos
Nonprimates
How Did Humans Evolve Language?Is Language a By-Product of Intelligence?
Language as a Specialization
A Sensitive Period for Language Learning
Brain Damage and LanguageBroca’s Aphasia (Nonfluent Aphasia)
Wernicke’s Aphasia (Fluent Aphasia)
Dyslexia
Language and the Brain
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 13.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 13.2. Conscious and Unconscious ProcessesThe Mind–Brain Relationship
Consciousness of a StimulusExperiments Using Masking
Experiments Using Binocular Rivalry
The Fate of an Unattended Stimulus
Consciousness as a Threshold Phenomenon
The Timing of Consciousness
Conscious and Unconscious People
AttentionBrain Areas Controlling Attention
Spatial Neglect
Attending to Attention and Being Conscious of Consciousness
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 13.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 13.3. Making Decisions and Social NeurosciencePerceptual Decisions
Decisions Based on Values
The Biology of Love
Empathy and Altruism
Biology of Decisions and Social Behavior
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 13.3 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
14. PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERSModule 14.1. Substance AbuseDrug Mechanisms
PredispositionsGenetic Influences
Environmental Influences
Behavioral Predictors of Abuse
Synaptic MechanismsThe Role of Dopamine
Cravings
Tolerance and Withdrawal
TreatmentsMedications to Combat Alcohol Abuse
Medications to Combat Opiate Abuse
The Psychology and Biology of Substance Abuse
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 14.1 End of Module Quiz
Module 14.2. Mood DisordersMajor Depressive DisorderGenetics
Abnormalities of Hemispheric Dominance
Antidepressant DrugsTypes of Antidepressants
How Are Antidepressants Effective?
How Effective Are Antidepressants?
Alternatives to Antidepressant Drugs
Exercise and Diet
Bipolar DisorderTreatments
The Biology of Mood Swings
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Questions
Module 14.2 End of Module Quiz
Module 14.3. SchizophreniaDiagnosisDifferential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
Demographic Data
GeneticsFamily Studies
Adopted Children Who Develop Schizophrenia
Efforts to Locate a Gene
The Neurodevelopmental HypothesisPrenatal and Neonatal Environment
Mild Brain Abnormalities
Long-Term Course
Early Development and Later Psychopathology
TreatmentsAntipsychotic Drugs and Dopamine
Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs
Role of Glutamate
Many Remaining Mysteries
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 14.3 End of Module Quiz
Module 14.4. Autism Spectrum DisordersSymptoms and Characteristics
Genetics and Other Causes
Treatments
Development and Disorders
Summary
Key Terms
Thought Question
Module 14.4 End of Module Quiz
Suggestions for Further Reading
APPENDIX A. BRIEF, BASIC CHEMISTRY
APPENDIX B. SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE POLICIES ON THE USE OF ANIMALS AND HUMAN SUBJECTS IN RESEARCH
REFERENCES
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